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Swachh Bharat Abhiyan or Clean India Drive

Introduction:- Mahatma Gandhi once said, “sanitation is more important than independence”. Gandhiji wanted Indians to lead a clean and hygienic life. But, unfortunately, Indians continued leading an unhygienic lifestyle even after six decades since independence. In order to materialise Gandhiji’s dream of a clean India, the ruling BJP took the decisive step of launching a cleanliness drive termed Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, also known as Clean India Drive.
About the drive/campaign:- It was inaugurated on 2nd October in 2014 (the 145th birth anniversary of Gandhiji) by the Honourable Prime Minister Narendra Modi at Rajghat, New Delhi. The aims of this drive are — (i) to discourage defection on the open, (ii) to stop manual scavenging, (iii) to install sanitary toilets, (iv) to recycle or dispose waste materials, and (v) to encourage private enterprises for cleanliness.
Need for this drive:- The involvement of private enterprises in this drive would generate employment and increase GDP growth. It will reduce mortality rate and health-related expenses. It will also attach tourists to India.
Conclusion:- The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan or Clean India Drive is the biggest ever cleanliness drive in India. It will be a success only if we Indians cooperate wholeheartedly with the government in this drive. We must remember the saying, “Cleanliness is next to godliness”.

Textbook Solutions to FIRST FLIGHT for Class X under NCERT Curriculum

Textbook: FIRST FLIGHT

A Letter to God

What did Lencho hope for?
Ans: Lencho hoped that the hailstorm should go as quickly as possible.

Why did Lencho say the raindrops were like ‘new coins’?
Ans: As raindrops would have helped in getting a better harvest resulting in more prosperity, Lencho compared them with new coins.

How did the rain change? What happened to Lencho’s fields?
Ans: The rain changed to hailstorm. All the crop in the field was destroyed.

What were Lencho’s feelings when the hail stopped?
Ans: After the destruction caused by hail, Lencho was shattered. He could see a bleak future for him and his family. He was worried about lack of food for the coming year.

Who or what did Lencho have faith in? What did he do?
Answer: Lencho had faith in God. He believed that God could see everything and would help him out. Lencho wrote a letter to God, explained his situation and asked for some money from Him.

Who read the letter?
Answer: The postmaster read the letter.

What did the postmaster do then?
Answer: The postmaster was deeply touched by Lencho’s faith in God. He asked his colleagues to contribute some money so that they could send that to Lencho.

Who does Lencho have complete faith in? Which sentences in the story tell you this?
Answer: The following sentences explain Lencho’s faith in God, “But in the hearts of all who lived in that solitary house in the middle of the valley, there was a single hope: help from God. “Don’t be so upset, even though this seems like a total loss. Remember, no one dies of hunger.”

Why does the postmaster send money to Lencho? Why does he sign the letter ‘God’?
Answer: The postmaster was moved by Lencho’s complete faith in God. So, he decided to send money to Lencho. Moreover, the postmaster did not want to shake Lencho’s faith in God. So, he signed the letter as ‘God’. It was a good ploy to convey a message that God had himself written the letter.

Did Lencho try to find out who had sent the money to him? Why/Why not?
Answer: As Lencho had complete faith in God, he did not try to find out the actual sender of money.

Who does Lencho think has taken the rest of the money? What is the irony in the situation?
Answer: Lencho had all his doubts on people working in the post office. The irony of the situation is the finger pointing to those who had tried to help out Lencho. In real life also we come across such situations. Many a time you would have tried helping someone and he may get a wrong message.

Was Lencho surprised to find a letter for him with money in it?
Answer: Lencho was not surprised to get the money.

What made him angry?
Answer: The fact that he received half the amount he had requested for, made him angry.

Are there people like Lencho in the real world? What kind of a person would you say he is? You may select appropriate words from the following list to answer the question.
Greedy, naïve, stupid, ungrateful, selfish, comical, unquestioning

Answer: In the real world it almost impossible to find people, like Lencho. Lencho seems to be naïve and unquestioning. Naïve in the sense that he doesn’t even bother to think about who sent the money or if God would actually send the money. Probably his naiveté comes from his unquestioning belief in the God.

There are two kinds of conflict in the story: between humans and nature, and between humans themselves. How are these conflicts illustrated?
Answer: In the initial part of the story the episode of rainfall turning into a hailstorm shows the conflict between man and nature. When it is a rainfall the man is very happy dreaming about happy days ahead. But once the rain turns into hail the man is ruing the happening of hailstorm. The way Lencho is feeling sad and gloomy after the storm appropriately projects the conflict of the nature and the man. In the later part of the story when Lencho blames post office people for stealing part of the money then it is showing the conflict between humans. Although nothing is written what happened after that, but anybody can imagine the mental situation when postmaster read the letter.

Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Where did the ceremonies take place? Can you name any public buildings in India that are made of sandstone?
Answer: The ceremonies took place in the campus of the Union Building of Pretoria. Rashtrapati Bhavan, and Red Fort are some of the buildings made from sandstone.

Can you say how 10 May is an ‘autumn day’ in South Africa?
Answer: As South Africa is in the southern hemisphere, so it is autumn season there.

At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentions “an extraordinary human disaster”. What does he mean by this? What is the “glorious … human achievement” he speaks of at the end?
Answer: The extraordinary human disaster was the practice of apartheid in South Africa. During apartheid regime there was racial segregation based on skin colour of people. Black people did not have proper constitutional rights.

The end of apartheid regime and the beginning of a more tolerant society was the glorious human achievement.

What does Mandela thank the international leaders for?
Answer: During apartheid era many country had severed diplomatic ties with South Africa. On that day most of the countries dignitaries were present to attend the swearing in ceremony. This was a gesture of international recognition to a newly born free nation. Nelson Mandela was thanking them for this recognition.

What ideals does he set out for the future of South Africa?
Answer: Mandela set out the ideals of poverty alleviation, removal of suffering of people. He also set the ideal for a society where there would be no discrimination based on gender or racial origins.

What do the military generals do? How has their attitude changed, and why?
Answer: Military generals salute Nelson Mandela, which is having tis own importance as during apartheid era they would have arrested Mandela. The change in their attitude was because of struggle and sacrifices put in by many heroes of South Africa. This struggle not only ensured the freedom of South Africa but also brought a change of mindsets for many. As Nelson Mandela believed that like hate love can also be taught and human being is naturally oriented towards love rather than hate.

Why were two national anthems sung?
Answer: The rendition of national anthem from old republic as well as new republic was sign of the pledge of those who were laying the foundation of a new nation. As it was pledge to build a society devoid of any type of discrimination, the old republic song was also sung to show solidarity with white people and to show that it will be a truly multicultural society.

How does Mandela describe the systems of government in his country (i) in the first decade, and (ii) in the final decade, of the twentieth century?
Answer: In the first decade after the Anglo-Boer war it was the birth of an oppressive regime which created a system to deprive the black people of every basic human rights. In the final decade, of the twentieth century the system developed a strong pattern of even ignoring the sacrifices made by so many great leaders of South Africa. It was like as if black never existed for the apartheid regime.

What does courage mean to Mandela?
Answer: For Mandela courage does not mean the absence of fear but a victory over fear. According to him brave men need not be fearless but should be able to conquer fear.

Which does he think is natural, to love or to hate?
Answer: Mandela thinks for human beings it natural to love rather than to hate.

Why did such a large number of international leaders attend the inauguration? What did it signify the triumph of?
Answer: The presence of large number of international leaders was a gesture of solidarity from international community to the idea of the end of apartheid. It signified the triumph of good over evil, the triumph of the idea of a tolerant society without any discrimination.

What does Mandela mean when he says he is “simply the sum of all those African patriots” who had gone before him?
Answer: As Mandela was carrying forward the baton of the freedom struggle, he was also carrying the legacy of leaders of yesteryears. In a baton race the new runner simply carries forward the work done by his predecessors. This is what Nelson Mandela was doing. That is what he was trying to convey by making this statement.

Would you agree that the “depths of oppression” create “heights of character”? How does Mandela illustrate this? Can you add your own examples to this argument?
Answer: I agree with the statement that depths of oppression create heights of character. Nelson Mandela illustrates this by giving examples of great heroes of South Africa who sacrificed their lives in the long freedom struggle.

India is full of such examples. During our freedom struggle there was a galaxy of leaders of great characters. Probably the oppression of British rule created so many men of such characters. If we compare this with the quality of political leaders India is having today, then Nelson Mandela seems to be absolutely right.

How did Mandela’s understanding of freedom change with age and experience?
Answer: During young age freedom for Mandela meant a freedom on a personal level. The freedom to raise a family, and the freedom to earn a livelihood. After gaining experience the freedom meant a lot more to Nelson Mandela. It was a freedom for everybody. It was a freedom from fear and prejudice. Age and experience made his perspective wider.

How did Mandela’s ‘hunger for freedom’ change his life?
Answer: Slowly Nelson Mandela’s hunger for freedom turned from that on a personal level to a broader mass level. This changed the fearful man to a fearless rebel. He sacrificed the comforts of a settled family life to fight for a greater cause.

What “twin obligations” does Mandela mention?
Answer: In South Africa or in any nation there are two obligations for a person. One is at the personal level towards his family. Another obligation is towards the society. Apart from striving for personal goals a person should also work hard to contribute something to the society.

What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy, and as a student? How does he contrast these “transitory freedoms” with “the basic and honourable freedoms”?
Answer: Like any other kid for Mandela also the freedom meant a freedom to make merry and enjoy the blissful life. Once anybody becomes an adult then antics of childhood looks like transitory because most of the childish activity is wasteful from an adult’s perspective.

Once you are adult then someday you have to earn a livelihood to bring the bacon home, then only you get an honourable existence in the family and in the society.

Does Mandela think the oppressor is free? Why/Why not?
Answer: Mandela does not think that the oppressor is free. Because, the oppressor is, the prisoner of hatred and prejudice.

Glimpses of India: Coorg

Where is Coorg?
Answer: Coorg is situated in Karnataka. It is midway from Mysore to Mangalore.

What is the story about the Kodavu people’s descent?
Answer: It is believed that Kodavu people are of Arabic origin. It is said that some of Alexander’s army moved to the south and settled there. Their costumes, martial practices and marriage rituals also point to the fact that they are from Arabic origin.

What are some of the things you now know about
(i) the people of Coorg?

Answer: The people of Coorg are a proud martial race. Their women are beautiful. Martial race means those who have well developed fighting skills. They have a great tradition of hospitality. They would often recount stories of valour of their menfolks.

(ii) the main crop of Coorg?

Answer: The description of abundance of coffee plantations indicate that coffee is the main crop of Coorg.

(iii) the sports it offers to tourists?

Answer: The sporting activities in Coorg are of high energy variety. They are river rafting, canoeing, rock climbing, rappelling and mountain biking.

(iv) the animals you are likely to see in Coorg?

Answer: Macaques, Malabar squirrels, langurs and slender loris are widely found in Coorg. Apart from them elephants are also present.

(v) its distance from Bangalore, and how to get there?

Answer: Coorg is 252 kms from Bangalore. From Mysore it is 146 Kms and there is good train connectivity between Mysore and Coorg. From Bangalore bus services are available. From the rest of India anybody can reach Bangalore airport by flight and proceed towards Coorg. (ref: http://www.karnataka.com/tourism/coorg )

Here are six sentences with some words in italics. Find phrases from the text that have the same meaning. (Look in the paragraphs indicated)
(i) During monsoons it rains so heavily that tourists do not visit Coorg. (para 2)

Answer: During the monsoons, it pours enough to keep many visitors away.

(ii) Some people say that Alexander’s army moved south along the coast and settled there. (para 3)

Answer: As one story goes, a part of Alexander’s army moved south along the coast and settled here when return became impractical.

(iii) The Coorg people are always ready to tell stories of their sons’ and fathers’ valour. (para 4)

Answer: Coorgi homes have a tradition of hospitality, and they are more than willing to recount numerous tales of valour related to their sons and fathers.

(iv) Even people who normally lead an easy and slow life get smitten by the high-energy adventure sports of Coorg. (para 6)

Answer: The most laidback individuals become converts to the life of high-energy adventure with river rafting.

(v) The theory of the Arab origin is supported by the long coat with embroidered waist-belt they wear. (para 3)

Answer: The theory of Arab origin draws support from the long, black coat with an embroidered waist-belt worn by the Kodavus.

(vi) Macaques, Malabar squirrels observe you carefully from the tree canopy.

Answer: Macaques, Malabar squirrels, langurs and slender loris keep a watchful eye from the tree canopy.

Madam Rides The Bus

What was Valli’s favourite pastime?
Answer: As Valli had no playmate of her age, so her favourite pastime was to stand in her doorway and watch the street. The street outside used to be full of activities which were enough to keep her amused and engaged.

What was a source of unending joy for Valli? What was her strongest desire?
Answer: The bus was a source of unending joy for her. The bus used to bring a new set of passengers every-time it came from the town. The diversity of people, their activities were a treat to watch for Valli. Her strongest desire was to take a ride in the bus at least once.

What did Valli find out about the bus journey? How did she find out these details?
Answer: Valli tried to listen to her neighbours to get the desired information about the bus journey. She would ask some discrete questions to get more information. She got information about distance of the town from her village and the total journey time it usually took.

What do you think Valli was planning to do?
Answer: Till now information provided in the story indicate towards her plan to fulfill her strongest desire which was to go on a bus ride.

Why does the conductor call Valli ‘madam’?
Answer: Valli is trying to behave more mature than her age. She is trying to look overconfident and smart. The conductor is amused at her behaviour and in an effort to tease her calls her ‘madam’.

Why does Valli stand up on the seat? What does she see now?
Answer: Valli’s view was obstructed because of a canvas blind on the window and because of her small height as well, she was unable to have a good view outside. She stood up on her seat to have a better view of the scenery outside. She could see a canal with palm trees, grasslands, distant mountains and blue sky as backdrop. On the other side there was a ditch followed by vast tract of greenery.

What does Valli tell the elderly man when he calls her a child?
Answer: Valli doesn’t like to be called a child. She thinks that she is grown up. She says that she had paid her full fair the way adults do. This is typical behaviour shown by many kids of Valli’s age.

Why didn’t Valli want to make friends with the elderly woman?
Answer: The elderly woman was having big earlobes with bigger holes. She chewing betel nut and the betel juice was about to seep out of her mouth. She was giving a sight of unrefined elderly lady. That is why Vaali did not want to make friends with her.

How did Valli save up money for her first journey? Was it easy for her?
Answer: Valli saved every coin that came her way. She made great sacrifices by controlling her normal childish urges of having candies, toys and joyrides. This must have been difficult for her. Kids find it very difficult to savour a candy or to enjoy a toy.

What did Valli see on her way that made her laugh?
Answer: A scared cow was running for her life in the middle of the road. It was jumping with tails up. The more incessantly bus driver honked the more furious its scamper became. Valli could not control her laughter after seeing this.

Why didn’t she get off the bus at the bus station?
Answer: She did not know anything about the town so was afraid of getting lost. Moreover, her meticulous savings plan allowed her enough money to buy only tickets for her journey. Additionally, she had to return before her mother could find her missing.

Why didn’t Valli want to go to the stall and have a drink? What does this tell you about her?
Answer: She did not want to take obligation from the conductor. This indicates that she is taught of not taking anything from strangers. She may be a small child but she knows how to behave properly in the outside world.
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Textbook Solutions to FOOTPRINTS WITHOUT FEET for Class X under NCERT Curriculum

Textbook: FOOTPRINTS WITHOUT FEET

The Midnight Visitor

“Ausable did not fit any description of a secret agent Fowler had ever read.” What do secret agents in books and films look like, in your opinion?
Answer: Secret agents in fiction are projected like ideal men, ‘Tall dark and handsome’. They are usually well built and keep have beautiful women for company. They would always smoke pipe or cigar and do death defying stunts. James Bond is a very famous character by Ian Fleming. Movies based on James Bond show hi-tech gizmos which assist the detective in countering villains. There are some exceptions as well. There is a character named Feluda which was created by Satyajit Ray, the famous Bangla Filmmaker. Feluda was typical bhadralok by appearance.

How does Ausable manage to make Max believe that there is a balcony attached to his room? Look back at his detailed description of it. What makes it a convincing story?
Answer: Ausable creates a detailed description of how his office was part a bigger apartment and how the next room had direct connection with the balcony. His statement that somebody else also broke into his office through that balcony made it a convincing story.

Looking back at the story, when do you think Ausable thought up his plan for getting rid of Max? Do you think he had worked out his plan in detail right from the beginning? Or did he make up a plan taking advantage of events as they happened?
Answer: Ausable is very clever the way a detective should be. He made the plan to get rid of Max from the very beginning which is evident from the story of the imaginary balcony. He knew the waiter would come to deliver his drinks. He planned carefully to create an imaginary policeman which would have compelled Max to jump on the non-existent balcony.

A Question of Trust

Did you begin to suspect, before the end of the story, that the lady was not the person Horace Danby took her to be? If so, at what point did you realise this, and how?
Answer: It is difficult to guess before the story ends. The incidence of the lady calming the dog gives some hint but it is not strong enough. Her statement of getting the safe repaired can make some reader to think but this can be also be a case of fear of a strict husband.

What are the subtle ways in which the lady manages to deceive Horace Danby into thinking she is the lady of the house? Why doesn’t Horace suspect that something is wrong?
Answer: Her confident walk, her act of touching up her make-up and the ease with which she picks cigarette from the right place are enough to deceive anybody. Horace was too frightened to think properly so he didn’t suspect anything.

“Horace Danby was good and respectable — but not completely honest”. Why do you think this description is apt for Horace? Why can’t he be categorised as a typical thief?
Answer: Danby’s habits were not typical of a thief. He was fond of books. He used to steal only once in a year so he was never stealing more than his needs. Act of theft is still a crime not matter how good a thief behaves, so Danby can’t be termed as completely honest. He is not a regular offender like other thieves so he can’t be categorized as a typical thief.

Horace Danby was a meticulous planner but still he faltered. Where did he go wrong and why?
Answer: Horace Danby failed to get enough information about real occupants of the house. He seems to be too occupied with collecting information about house map, wiring and location of valuable things. Although he was smart enough to know the dog’s actual name but overlooked getting identity of each and every occupants of the house. Once he was in problem then probably his clever mind gave way to carelessness leading him to open the safe without wearing gloves.

Do you think Horace Danby was unfairly punished, or that he deserved what he got?
Answer: He deserved what he got. A crime is a crime no matter if it is committed a hundred times or just once.

Do intentions justify actions? Would you, like Horace Danby, do something wrong if you thought your ends justified the means? Do you think that there are situations in which it is excusable to act less than honestly?
Answer: “Ends do not justify means”, this is a very old and time tested saying. For own benefit nobody should harm others. But this world doesn’t function on idealism. There are many examples of people duping people for quick gains. These acts should be deplored and dealt with severely.

Footprints Without Feet

”Griffin was rather a lawless person” comment.
Answer: Griffin never thought twice before harming anybody. He put his landlord’s house on fire. Then his stealing acts at shops and later in the village indicate towards this. When he was encountered by the landlady of the inn, he threw chair at her and her husband. Lawless persons never think about safety and well being of others. They are always preoccupied with their benefits only.

How would you assess Griffin as Scientist ?
Answer: Griffin is a brilliant scientist which is evident from his drug of invisibility. But he seems to enjoy the feeling of power which he got out of his invisibility. The power to hurt anybody without getting noticed can give sadistic pleasure to somebody. A true scientist makes discovery for the larger benefit of the society.

The Hack Driver

When the lawyer reached New Mullion, did ‘Bill’ know that he was looking for Lutkins? When do you think Bill came up with his plan for fooling the lawyer?
Answer: Lutkins’ act of taking the lawyer for a ride clearly indicates that he is a very cunning person. It is his natural behaviour not to disclose his true identity to unknown persons. Moreover, being a cheat as he is it seems his regular practice to dupe people who are newcomers.

Lutkins openly takes the lawyer all over the village. How is it that no one lets out the secret? Can you find other such subtle ways in which Lutkins manipulates the tour?
Answer: Lutkin never allows the lawyer to the place where the imaginary Lutkins is supposed to be present at a given time. The way he weaves stories about Lutkin’s vagabond nature and the way he scares the lawyer about Lutkin’s mother are great tools applied by Bill.

Why do you think Lutkins’ neighbours were anxious to meet the lawyer?
Answer: Lutkin’s neighbours were not anxious to meet a person who could be easily duped. They wanted to enjoy the lawyer’s predicament.

After his first day’s experience with the hack driver the lawyer thinks of returning to New Mullion to practise law. Do you think he would have reconsidered this idea after his second visit?
Answer: After his second visit the lawyer must have got the shock of his life that how easily he believed Lutkin. He also got a lesson to deal carefully with people. The image of a village with friendly people must have changed in his mind. So there is least chance of him planning to practice law in that village.

Do you think the lawyer was gullible? How could he have avoided being taken for a ride?
Answer: The lawyer seems to be a simpleton and inexperienced person. He has yet to come to grips with the way the bad world functions. He could have done his homework better before going to the village. He could have taken a photograph of Lutkin if available. Before relying on Bill he could have cross checked with other people as well. He could have avoided sending Bill alone to search Lutkin.

Practice Questions on Tense, Set 1

Practice Questions on Tense :

1. Many students ___ (go) to school on foot.

Ans: Many students go to school on foot

2. They ___ (stage) a play last month.

Ans: They staged a play last month

3. Yesterday ___ (be) a holiday.

Ans: Yesterday was a holiday.

4.You ___ (wait) throughout the day.

Ans: You have been waiting throughout the day.

5.While he ___ (drive) his car, he found his friend lying on the road.

Ans: While he was driving his car, he found his friend lying on the road.

6.The man who ___ (not work) should not eat.

Ans: The man who does not work should not eat.

7.It was Fleming who ___ (discover) penicillin.

Ans: It was Fleming who discovered penicillin.

8.They ___ (come) here next week.

Ans: They will come here next week.

9.She never ___ (read) any book.

Ans: She has never read any book.

10.When she was discussing the matter with us, her friend ___ (call) her on the phone.

Ans: When she was discussing the matter with us, her friend called her on the phone.

11.The population of the world ___ (rise) very fast.

Ans: The population of the world is rising very fast.

12.An atheist ___ (not believe) in God.

Ans: An atheist does not believe in God.

13.Bad driving ___ (cause) many accidents.

Ans: Bad driving causes many accidents.

14.Do you ___ (understand) what I mean?

Ans: Do you understand what I mean?

15.I ___ (not eat) anything since breakfast.

Ans: I have not eaten anything since breakfast.

16.She ___ (look) for a job for six months.

Ans: She has been looking for a job for six months.

17.It ___ (not rain) this week.

Ans: It has not rained this week.

18.It ___ (not rain) last week.

Ans: It did not rain last week.

19.When Rupa arrived at the party, Paul ___ already (go) home.

Ans: When Rupa arrived at the party, Paul had already gone home.

20.We arrived at work in the morning and found that somebody ___ (break) into the office during the night.

Ans: We arrived at work in the morning and found that somebody had broken into the office during the night.

21.I ___ (hear) the news an hour ago.

Ans: I have heard the news an hour ago.

22.When you came in, it ___ (rain) still.

Ans: When you came in, it was raining still.

23.It ___ (rain) since early morning.

Ans: It has been raining since early morning.

24.Mary told me that she ___ (visit) China two years before.

Ans: Mary told me that she had visited China two years before.

25.She is interested in politics, but she ___ (not belong) to any political party.

Ans: She is interested in politics, but she does not belong to any political party.

26.When we reached the station, the train ___ (leave) already.

Ans: When we reached the station, the train had left already.

27.The bell rang after we ___ (finish) our work.

Ans: The bell rang after we had finished our work.

28.As soon as they ___ (finish) breakfast, they ran out to play.

Ans: As soon as they had finished breakfast, they ran out to play.

29.I ___ (work) next term.

Ans: I shall work next term.

30.It’s time we ___ (start).

Ans: It’s time we started.

31.I ___ (finish) this work by five o’clock.

Ans: I shall have finished this work by five o’clock.

32.He ___ (be) ill since last week.

Ans: He has been ill since last week.

33.This paper ___ (appear) twice daily.

Ans: This paper appears twice daily.

34.This time tomorrow I ___ (read) the novel.

Ans: This time tomorrow I shall be reading the novel.

35.He ___ (leave) before you go to see him.

Ans: He will leave before you go to see him.

36.I won’t go out if it ___ (rain).

Ans: I won’t go out if it rains.

37.Please ring me up as soon as he ___ (come).

Ans: Please ring me up as soon as he comes.

38.When we went to the cinema, the film ___ (start) already.

Ans: When we went to the cinema, the film had already started.

39.Our guests ___ (arrive), they are sitting in the garden.

Ans: Our guests have arrived, they are sitting in the garden.

40.The earth ___ (move) round the Sun.

Ans: The earth moves round the Sun.

41.You ___ (wear) a new coat, aren’t you?

Ans: You are wearing a new coat, aren’t you?

42.I ___ (not see) him for sometime.

Ans: I have not seen him for sometime.

43.It ___ (rain) heavily when he woke up.

Ans: It was raining heavily when he woke up.

44.I ___ (have) my dinner an hour ago.

Ans: I have had my dinner an hour ago.

45.It is ten years since I ___ (see) him.

Ans: It is ten years since I saw him.

46.Rita ___ (do) her homework when I entered the room.

Ans: Rita was doing her homework when I entered the room.

47.There ___ (go) the bus.

Ans: There goes the bus.

48.Here ___ (come) Abdul.

Ans: Here comes Abdul.

49.If it ___ (rain) I shall not go out.

Ans: If it rains I shall not go out.

50.She behaves as if she ___ (know) everything.

Ans: She behaves as if she knew everything.

51.I have not seen him since I ___ (leave) school.

Ans: I have not seen him since I left school.

52.He ___ (go) to Shillong last month.

Ans: He went to Shillong last month.

53.This work was ___ (begin) last month.

Ans: This work was begun last month.

54.If I ___ (be) you I would not do that.

Ans: If I were you I would not do that.

55.As he ___ (climb) the steps he slipped.

Ans: As he was climbing the steps he slipped.

56.As he was getting off the bus he ___ (fall) down.

Ans: As he was getting off the bus he fell down.

57.The bus always ___ (arrive) here at six.

Ans: The bus always arrives here at six.

58.You ___ (fail) unless you work harder.

Ans: You will fail unless you work harder.

59.I wish I ___ (can) help you.

Ans: I wish I could help you.

60.The match ___ (start) before we reached the field.

Ans: The match had started before we reached the field.

61.If you ___ (invite) him he will come.

Ans: If you invite him he will come.

62.If you ___ (invite) him he would have come.

Ans: If you had invited him he would have come.

63.We ___ (know) each other for many years.

Ans: We have known each other for many years.

Short Essay on Cleanliness

Cleanliness 
 

                   What is cleanliness : Cleanliness is the habit of keeping our body mind and environment clean. It should be cultivated from early life. There is a saying — “Cleanliness is godliness”.

       

Why it is important : The habit of cleanliness helps us maintain good health. If we keep our body, clothes and environment clean, germs can not attack us easily. Moreover, a dirty person is disliked and avoided by everyone. The habit of cleanliness marks the personality and manners of a person. So we should keep ourselves and our environment clean.
How to maintain cleanliness : We should brush our teeth, oil our hair, bathe daily and wear washed clothes. We should keep away from dirt. We should throw garbages in the dustbin. We should not pollute our environment. We should wash our hands before taking meal. We should tidy our homes.
Conclusion : All of us should maintain cleanliness so that we may attain good health and purity of mind. In a civilised society this is an essential virtue.

Learning the Voices in Easy steps, Day 2

How can we know if a sentence is in Active Voice or Passive Voice? Here’s the rule :

The sentence is in Passive Voice if there are — am/is/are/was/were/be/been/being + Past Participle form of Main Verb

Otherwise it is in Active Voice.

Tell whether the following sentences are in Active Voice or Passive Voice:

(1) I don’t know him.

(2) She is writing a letter.

(3) Students are being taught by the teacher.

(4) He was seen in the market yesterday.

(5) We have arranged a picnic next month.

(6) My bicycle has been lost.

Answers : (1) Act, (2) Act, (3) Pass, (4) Pass, (5) Act, (6) Pass .

Rules for changing from Active Voice to Passive Voice :

(1) Subject and Object change position with each other. Pronoun in Subjective Case (I, we, he etc) changes to Objective Case (me, us, him etc) and vice versa.

(2) Complement(s) remain at the same place.

(3) If there is no Auxiliary Verb in Active Voice then use “Be Verbs” (am/is/are/was/were) in Passive Voice as per Tense and Number.

(4) If there is do/does/did as Auxiliary Verb then don’t use it in Passive Voice. In this case use “Be Verbs”.

(5) Always use Past Participle form of Main Verb in Passive Voice.

(6) If there is a Modal Auxiliary Verb (such as shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must, need, dare, ought to and used to) then add the Verb “be” before Main Verb.

(7) If there is have/has/had as Auxiliary Verb then add the Verb “been” before Main Verb.

(8) If there is a Present Participle form (also known as “-ing form”) of Main Verb then use the verb “being ” before Main Verb in Passive Voice.

(9) If there is a Preposition right after the Main Verb then it will remain in the same position (i.e  right after the Main Verb).

(10) Add ‘by’ Preposition before Subject in Passive Voice. 

[But remember, ‘By’ is not absolutely necessary in Passive Voice. If the Subject is removed in Passive Voice (See Rule 13) then ‘by’ is also not needed. Sometimes other prepositions such as to/at/with may be used in place of ‘by’ (See Rule 12). ]

(11) If there are two Objects in Active Voice then the second Object (Direct Object) will be placed right after the Main Verb in Passive Voice.

(12) If there is a Verb or Word like know, satisfy, dissatisfy, pleased, displeased, vexed, surprised then there will be ‘to’/’at’/’with’ instead of ‘by’ in Passive Voice. In the case of ‘know’ there will be ‘to’. In the case of the other Words there will be either ‘with’ (a person) or ‘at’ (a person’s something or any other thing)

(13) If there is “I” or “We” as Subject then there is no need to use it in Passive Voice.

(14) If the sentence is an Interrogative Sentence (?) then —

(i) Who –> By who

(ii) Whom –> Who

(iii) What + S –> What (no change)

(iv) What – S (no Subject) –> By what

(v) Which/Whose + O –> Which/Whose + O (i.e., no change)

(vi) Other Question Words such as Where, When, Why, How doesn’t change.

All these Question Words will always remain at the beginning of the sentence in Passive Voice.

Examples :

(1) I meet him.

He is met by me.

(See Rule 1)

(2) He saw me yesterday.

I was seen by him yesterday.

(See Rule 2)

(3) Rajesh wrote a letter to Reshma.

Reshma was written a letter by Rajesh.

(See Rule 3)

(4) She does not read stories.

Stories are not read by her.

(See Rule 4)

(5) He does his homework regularly.

His homework is done by him regularly.

(See Rule 5)

(6) You must tell the truth.

The truth must be told by you.

(See Rule 6)

(7) The boy has broken the chair.

The chair has been broken by the boy.

(See Rule 7)

(8) Mr Ahmed is teaching English in the classroom.

English is being taught by Mr Ahmed in the classroom.

(See Rule 8)

(9) They are laughing at the beggar.

The beggar is being laughed at by them.

(See Rule 9)

(10) Father bought a new car.

A new car was bought by father.

(See Rule 10)

(11) He teaches us Maths.

We are taught Maths by him.

{Or, Maths is taught to us by him}

(See Rule 11)

(12) (i) I know him.

He is known to me.

(ii) She pleased the interviewers.

The interviewers were pleased with her.

(iii) Her behaviour dissatisfied us.

We were dissatisfied at her behaviour.

(See Rule 12)

(13) (i) I have finished my homework.

My homework has been finished. (“by me” is not used)

(ii) We should respect our elders.

Our elders should be respected. (“by us” is not used)

(See Rule 13)

(14) (i) Who invented computer?

By who was computer invented?

(ii) Whom do you want?

Who is wanted by you?

(iii) What have you made?

What has been made by you?

(iv) What causes an earthquake?

By what is an earthquake caused?

(v) (a) Which book did he take?

Which book was taken by him?

(b) Whose shirt are you wearing?

Whose shirt is being worn by you?

(vi) (a) Where will he meet you?

Where will you be met by him?

(b) When do you play cricket?

When is cricket played by you?

(c) Why did you not take the meal?

Why was the meal not taken by you?

(d) How have you solved the sum?

How has the sum been solved by you?

Thats’s all for today. Keep track of my blog to get the next update on Voices. 

Suggested Questions from Class X Supplementary Reader, Footprints Without Feet

Supplementary Reading (Footprints Without Feet) 


The Midnight Visitor 
Short Answer Type Questions: 2/3 marks each 
1. How was Ausable different from other secret agents? 
2. What did Ausable say about the ‘paper’ to Fowler? 
3. What was the discussion of the report that took place between Ausable and Max? 
4. What did Ausable say about the room where he was staying? What did Ausable tell Max about the balcony and why? 
5. What is your perspective about the intruder in Ausable’s room? 
Essay Type Questions : 4/5 marks each
1. Describe the meeting between Ausable and Fowler. 
2. Describe the meeting between Ausable and Max.
3. What is your perspective about Ausable as a secret agent? 
4. How was the physique of Ausable? State his command over Ianguage.
5. Describe how Ausable outsmarted Max. 
A Question of Trust 
Short Answer Type Questions : 2/3 marks each 
1. Give a brief account of Horace Danby. 
2. How did Horace Danby show dexterity in robbing? 
3. Why did he steal every year? 
4. What was the thought that striked him about the fifteen thousand pounds worth of jewel? 
5. What were the precautionary steps taken by Horace Danby regarding finger prints? 
6. What was written in the magazine article? 
7. How did the woman look?
8. What did the woman tell Horace Danby about the jewellery? 
9. ls the title of the story appropriate? If so, why? 
Essay Type Questions : 4/5 marks each
1. “Horace Danby was good and respectable but not completely honest”. Why do you think this description is apt for Horace? Why can’t he be categorized as a typical thief?
2. Horace Danby was a meticulous planner but still he faltered. Where did he go wrong and why? 
3. Describe the meeting between Horace Danby and the lady. How did the lady display her meticulousness in outwitting Horace Danby? Give reasons for your answer. 
Footprints Without Feet 
Short Answer Type Questions . 2/3 marks each 
1. Who was Griffin? What experiment did he make? 
2. Why did Griffin slip into a big London store? 
3. What did Griffin do inside the big London store? 
4. Why did he go to Drury Lane? 
5. What did he do inside a shop in Drury Lane? 
6. What did Griffin tell Mrs. Hall, the landlord’s wife? 
7. Why did Mrs. Hall find Griffin eccentric? 
8. What curious episode took place at the inn? Why was Griffin suspected of stealing money from the clergyman’s desk? 
9. Why were the people at the bar shocked and horrified? 
Essay Type Questions : 4/5 markscach 
1. Do you think Griffin was a lawless person? Explain. 
2. Science is a boon but also a curse. How is the negative aspect of science reflected through the character of Griffin? 
3. What happened to the landlord and his wife in Griffin’s room? 
The Hack Driver 
Short Answer Type Questions : 2/3 marks each 
1. Give a brief account of the narrator. 
2. Why did the narrator not like his profession? 
3. How was New Mullion according to the narrator? 
4. Give a brief account of Lutkins. 
5. What did the hack driver tell the narrator about Lutkins and his family? 
6. Give a brief account of Bill Magnuson. 
Essay Type Questions : 4/5 marks each 
1. Sketch the character of the hack driver. 
2. Describe the meeting between the narrator and the hack driver. How did the narrator become a fool at the hands of the hack driver? Describe the narrator‘s visit to the farm of Lutkins’ mother. 

“The Fun They Had” by Issac Asimov || NCERT Class 9 Solutions

Thinking About Text



I. Answer these questions in a few words or a couple of sentences each.



1. How old are Margie and Tommy?

Ans: Margie is eleven years old and Tommy is thirteen years old.

2. What did Margie write in her diary?

Ans: In her diary, Margie wrote, “Today Tommy found a real book!”.


3. Had Margie ever seen a book before?

Ans: No, Margie had never seen a book before.

4. What things about the book did she find strange?

Ans: To her surprise, Margie found that the texts on the pages didn’t move the way they were supposed to on a television or a computer screen. Besides, she was wondered why anyone would write about school.

5. What do you think a telebook is?

Ans: A telebook book is a sort of virtual book that can be displayed and read on a television screen.

6. Where was Margie’s school? Did she have any classmates?

Ans: Margie’s school was right next to her bedroom.

No, she didn’t have any classmates.

7. What subjects did Margie and Tommy learn?

Ans: Margie and Tommy learned geography, history and arithmetic.

II. Answer the following with reference to the story.
1. “I wouldn’t throw it away.”

(i) Who says these words?

(ii) What does ‘it’ refer to?

(iii) What is it being compared with by the speaker?

Ans:

(i) Tommy said these words.

(ii) ‘It’ refers to the television at their home.

(iii) Tommy is comparing the television to the real books in earlier times in which words were printed on paper. He thought that after reading such books, one would have to throw them away. However, he would never throw his telebooks away as their television could contain millions of telebooks.

2. “Sure they had a teacher, but it wasn’t a regular teacher. It was a man.”

(i) Who does ‘they’ refer to?

(ii) What does ‘regular’ mean here?

(iii) What is it contrasted with?

Ans:

(i) They refer to the students who studied in the old kind of schools centuries before.

(ii) Here, ‘regular’ refers to the mechanical teachers that Tommy and Margie had.

(iii) The mechanical teacher is contrasted with the teachers of earlier times, who were real human beings.

III. Answer each of these questions in a short paragraph (about 30 words).

1. What kind of teachers did Margie and Tommy have?

Ans: Margie and Tommy had mechanical teachers. They were large and black and ugly. They had large black screens on which all the lessons were shown and questions were asked. The students had to put their homework and test papers inside the slot the mechanical teachers had on their body. They had to write their answers in a punch code and the mechanical teacher could calculate the marks at once.

2. Why did Margie’s mother send for the County Inspector?

Ans: Margie had been giving test after test in geography. But her performance was getting worse and worse. That’s why Margie’s mother sent for the County Inspector to find out if anything is wrong.

3. What did he do?

Ans: The County Inspector gave Margie an apple and started mending the mechanical teacher. He took it apart and then checked it. To Margie’s disappointment, he managed to reassemble it. He slowed down the geography sector of the teacher because it was geared a little too quick for an average ten-year-old.

4. Why was Margie doing badly in geography? What did the County Inspector do to help her?

Ans: Margie was doing badly in geography because the geography sector of the mechanical teacher had been geared a little too quick. The County Inspector dissembled the mechanical teacher and adjusted the geography sector to an average ten-year level. He also told Mrs. Jones, Margie’s mother, that Margie’s overall pattern of progress was satisfactory.

5. What had once happened to Tommy’s teacher?

Ans: Once the history sector of Tommy’s teacher had blanked out completely and the Country Inspector took him away for nearly a month.

6. Did Margie have regular days and hours for school? If so, why?

Ans: Yes, Margie had regular days and hours for school. Her mother believed that learning at regular hours helped little girls learn better. Her mechanical teacher automatically switched on at the same time everyday except Saturday and Sunday.

7. How does Tommy describe the old kind of school?

Ans: Tommy described old kind of school as a special building where all kids studied together. They came together, sat together, played and learnt the same things if they were of the same age. They helped each other with their homework. At the end of the day, they went to their homes frolicking together.

8. How does he describe the old kind of teachers?

Ans: Tommy said that the old kind of teachers were real human beings who taught the students in a special building. The teachers taught the children of same age group the same things, gave them homework and asked them questions.

Two Gentlemen of Verona by A.J. Cronin : Solutions | Notes

Q1 .. What are the qualities of a “gentleman”? Work with your partner and complete the following web-chart by listing the qualities of a gentleman.


Ans: A gentleman should be honest, sincere, courteous, noble, humble, grateful, cheerful, amicable, sociable, polished, disciplined and punctual.
Q2 .. Based on your discussion above, what do you think the story is about?

Ans: The story is about the display of gentlemanly behaviour of two gentlemen hailing/coming from Verona, an Italian town.
Q3 .. What do you understand by the following statements?


(a) “We do many things, sir,” Nicola answered seriously. He glanced at us hopefully.

Ans: The two boys Nicola and Jacopo do many sorts of things to make a living. Sometimes they are seen selling wild-strawberries, sometimes shining shoes, sometimes guiding tourists through the town to Verona and sometimes selling newspapers. They were eagerly looking at the author and his driver Luigi for a positive response.
(b) He coloured deeply under his sunburn, then grew pale.

Ans: When the author asked Nicola what they did with the earnings, he was embarrassed. He did not want to disclose it as he was unwilling to draw sympathy from anyone. He and his brother Jacopo earned the needed money by hard work and honest ways in order to sustain the expenses of their ailing sister Lucia. They had much self-respect and determination. So Nicola grew pale while trying to maintain secrecy.
(c) He smiled uncomfortably. “Just plans, Sir,” he answered in a low voice.

Ans: Nicola was uncomfortable talking to the author because the author had repeatedly tried to extract his plans. He even asked him whether they were planning to go to America. But, Nicola and Jacopo, whose first preference was to make their sister recover from spinal tuberculosis, did not want anybody’s sympathy. So they tried to evade answering the question by simply saying “just plans”.
(d) Yet in both these boyish faces there was a seriousness which was far beyond their years.

Ans: Nicola and Jacopo had to face much hardship since their childhood. They were rendered motherless by cruel fate and their father had been killed in a shelling at their house. Being homeless they joined the army to fight the Germans. When the war was over they returned to find their sister suffering from spinal tuberculosis. In order to afford her medical expenses they had to do a variety of works at a tender age. They lost much of their child-like behaviour and began behaving like adults in terms of taking responsibilities and earning money.
6. (a) Why didn’t Luigi, the driver, approve of the two boys?

Ans: Luigi, the driver, thought them to be impostors trying to fleece wayfarers and travelers. Their appearance and attires looked uncouth and shabby.
6. (b) Why were the narrator and his companion impressed by the two boys?

Ans: The narrator and his companion were impressed with the simplicity, behaviour and seriousness of the two boys.
6.(c) Why was the author surprised to see Nicola and Jacopo working as shoeshine boys?

Ans: The author was surprised to find Nicola and Jacopo working as shoeshine boys as he had seen seen them selling wild strawberries the other day.
6.(d) How were the boys useful to the author?

Ans: The boys were used by the author to buy American cigarettes, or book seats for the opera, or suggest the name of a good restaurant.
6. (e) Why were the boys in the deserted square at night? What character traits do they exhibit?

Ans: The boys were waiting at the deserted square at night to catch the last bus to Poleta so that they could sell off the remaining unsold newspapers.

They exhibit the character traits of forbearance, determination and sense of responsibility.
6. (f) The narrator asks the boys, “Must you work so hard? You both look rather tired.”

The boys reply, “We are not complaining, Sir.” What do you learn about the boys from their reply?

Ans: The reply from the boys show them to be unfaultering at times of hardship. Rather than complaining about their plight, they were struggling hard with a positive attitude to overcome difficulties and change their condition. That’s the spirit we need to learn at our times of adversity.
(g) When the narrator asks the boys about their plans, they are evasive. Why don’t they disclose their problems?

Ans: Though the boys were poor, they were free. They earned whatever they could by honest means. They wanted to solve the problems on their own. Rather than garnering sympathy and financial support from others by telling their sob-story, they preferred maintaining their self-respect. They were born of a noble family. So they had nobility in their attitude. Besides they were able to provide for the necessary medical expenses for their sister every week even though working hard. So they didn’t disclose their problems with the author.
7. Discuss the following questions and write the answers in your notebook.


(a) Appearances are deceptive. Discuss with reference to the two boys.

Ans: The two boys, Nicola and Jacopo, were dressed in shabby, worn-out clothes. One of them was wearing a worn out Jersey and cut-off khaki pants, and the other was wearing a shortened army tunic. They had brown skin, tangled hair and dark eyes. The first impression, if one sees them, would be negative. The author and his driver had the same impression too. It’s only when they got to know these two boys later that they could see the warmth in their hearts, the sense of responsibility, the undaunted spirit, the honesty and the simplicity in them. Good appearance doesn’t make a gentleman. One needs to possess the qualities that these two boys exhibit. It is said that first impression is the last impression. But it is not a good approach to identify a gentleman. One needs to look beyond one’s appearance to explore one’s worth. Good character should be the criteria to judge.
(b) Do you think the boys looked after Lucia willingly? Give reasons for your answer.

Ans: Certainly the boys looked after their sister Lucia willingly. After the war had been over, they came back to find their sister Lucia suffering from spinal tuberculosis. They persuaded their sister to get admitted to a hospital for treatment. In order to meet the expenses they worked relentlessly and paid every week. She was showing signs of recovery. If the boys were unwilling, they could have left their sister because they were under no pressure from anyone including their parents who had died long before.
7. (c) How does the story ‘Two Gentlemen of Verona’ promise hope for society?

Ans: Obviously, the two boys of Verona are inspiring beings for any society. The way they retained their honesty, maintained familial bonds, worked sincerely to make a living, ignored their personal needs to save their sister, refused to get sympathy, and showed a sense of responsibility and dignity are worth noting. They could have earned by unfair means, but they were not tempted with easy money and preferred honest means. Every person in a society needs to imbibe these qualities to make the society better.

Learning the Voices in Easy Steps, Day 1

A sentence like “John has done the work” can be expressed in this way too — “The work has been done by John”. There is almost no difference in the meanings, but there is difference in emphasis. In the first sentence, emphasis is put upon the doer of the action i.e. “John” (meaning none but John has done the work). In the second sentence, emphasis is put upon “the work” (emphasis is on the completion of the work rather than on the doer of the action). In this sentence we can do away with “John” as such “The work has been done”. So, let me tell you the grammatical terms associated with each type of sentences. The first type of sentence is said to be in the Active Voice and the second type of sentence is said to be in the Passive Voice.

How can we identify a sentence in the Passive Voice easily? Remember this structure — S+am/is/are/was/were/be/been/being+Past Participle

Sentences in the above structure can be identified as in the Passive Voice, otherwise it’s in the Active Voice.

Remember that certain kinds of sentences can’t be changed into the other voice form, particularly sentences having intransitive verbs. “I slept well” or “She is a girl”, ” He was born in London” are such sentences.

Now, lets come to identifying the Subject, Object, Complement in a sentence. To identify these, you have to identify the Verb(s) first. Then ask the following questions using the Wh- words and the Verb(s) :

Who <Verb> ? : Subject

Whom <Verb> ? : Object-1 (Indirect Object)

What <Verb> ? : Object-2 (Direct Object)

How <Verb> ? : Complement

Where <Verb> ? : Complement

When <Verb> ? : Complement

Why <Verb> ? : Complement

Let’s take a sentence for example, “I offered the beggar a blanket sympathetically at my home yesterday because he was shivering in cold.”

Who <offered> ? : I (Sub.)

Whom <offered> ? : the beggar (Obj.-1)

What <offered> ? : a blanket (Obj.-2)

How <offered> ? : sympathetically (Com.)

Where <offered> ? : at my home (Com.)

When <offered> ? : yesterday (Com.)

Why <offered> ? : because he was shivering in cold ( Com.)

Only after identifying the Subject, Verb, Object and Complement can we proceed towards changing of voice. Before that we should keep in mind the following points :

(1) The Subject and the Object change positions with each other.

(2) The pronouns change from Subjective Case (I, we, you, he, she etc) to Nominative Case (me, us, you, him, her) and vice versa.

(3) There may or may not be Auxiliary Verb(s) and Past Participle form of Main Verb in Active Voice. But a Passive Voice sentence must have these two things.

(4) Words like not, never, ever, just, already, still etc remain attached to the Auxiliary Verb.

(5) Prepositions remain attached to the Main Verb.

(6) In Passive Voice form, the proposition ‘by’ is generally used before the Subject. Though other propositions like to, at, with are used in case of certain verbs such as ‘know’, ‘satisfy’, ‘please’, ‘vex’, ‘annoy’ etc.

(7) Complements never change their position. It can be anywhere in the semtence. In Passive Voice it should be left in the same position.

An example to understand this better –

Act. :- Mr Peters teaches English well.

Pass. :- English is taught by Mr Peters well.

In the Active Voice sentence, there is no Auxiliary, but the Passive Voice sentence has (‘is’). In the A.V. sentence ‘teaches’ is not a Past Participle form, but in the P.V. sentence ‘taught’ is a Past Participle form. The Subject ‘Mr Peters’ and the Object ‘English’ change positions with each other. The Complement ‘well’ (How <teaches> ?) remains in the same position. That’s all for today. The remaining part of the tutorial will be posted subsequently. Keep visiting and give feedback in the comments box below.

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